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7 Tips for Using Background Textures in Web Design

This is not your typical roundup of textures to use for website backgrounds. If you are looking for a specific texture, we have those here. But what if you want to create your own? Or find a way to customize a texture to fit your project? That’s what we’ll focus on today.

While there are many ways to use textures in web design, you’ll get a lot more mileage out of those backgrounds if you take a modern approach, and follow a few simple rules. Here are seven tips to help you use background textures in web design well (and in-line with 2018 design patterns and trends).

1. Go Simple and Understated

background textures

A great background texture might not even get noticed by many users. It should be a nearly invisible element that contributes to overall readability and usability while providing depth or visual interest.

Simple and understated background textures are the perfect way to do this. For an event late last year, Github’s Universe Conference used a design that included a simple black background with white dots. The night-sky effect really does fall into the background so that the fun gradient logotype and event information are easy to find.

Simple background textures tend to have small or tight repeating patterns and can be almost any color. The idea is that these background textures aren’t a focal point; they serve to help bring attention to the rest of the design.

2. Go Big and Bold

website textures

Maybe subtle isn’t your thing. If that’s the case, opt for a big and bold background texture or pattern.

These larger-than-life styles work for designs where the foreground is more text- or user interface element-heavy, and there aren’t other competing images to deal with. Using this type of background texture can get tricky, from creating a tiling pattern that invisible to the user to keeping the background from inadvertently becoming the main focal point of the entire design.

To ensure that your oversized background texture is working, keep an eye on analytics and user habits once to make the change. A sharp decrease in traffic or conversions is a sign that you visuals and users might not be connecting.

3. Incorporate a Trend

background textures

A background texture with a trend can make your design feel super-modern and fresh.

With geometric shapes as all the rage right now, it’s no wonder that Apacio’s website is appealing. With a mix of bright colored geometry on a dark background, the pattern creates a nice texture and depth that helps the user focus on the large text and call to action because these elements contrast with the background. The text – simple sans serif lettering – seems to lift right off the green shapes.

The layering of textures contributes to this overall effect as well. Note that color separates two layers of backgrounds with darker elements “behind” brighter elements.

4. Use an Image

website textures

A background texture doesn’t have to be a repeating pattern that you pull from a download site. Some of the best background textures are images that relate to the brand or main messaging to add another level of visual interest and engagement.

The trick is to fade the image into the background effectively. (And that doesn’t necessarily mean to use a fade technique.) Fading the image means that it drops out of the main image area and into the distance.

In the example above, Oxeva does this in two ways: It darkens the photo so that only outlines are visible of the cityscape, and it uses a bold color treatment in the foreground to draw the eye naturally. The photo also has somewhat of a blur to it, so that the image is discernable, but not with a level of detail that makes fine points of the photo important.

5. Use Color Variations

background textures

Mix and match tints and tones from the same color palette to create a bold texture from lettering or shapes. Color variations, even those in the same family, can create depth and visual interest.

Types of Type uses a fun combination of colors with giant letters to create the background texture. Even without techniques such as gradients or shadows, the lines from letterforms establish depth and balance while helping to draw the eye to where the colors in the background meet and the main headline is located.

6. Grab a Gradient

website textures

Gradients are trendy and visually engaging. When it comes to using a gradient as a background texture, you can use it alone or layer it with a photo.

Almost any color combination goes, so using a gradient to create texture and depth isn’t difficult. You can find a gradient combination you love from WebGradients if you don’t already have swatches in mind to work with. https://webgradients.com/

Mobipad uses multiple, subtle gradients to create depth and texture in the background. Illustrated animations in the foreground almost pop off the gradients, and the dark-colored call to action is easy to see. Lighter and darker spaces in the gradient texture help move the user move through the design at a glance.

7. Animate It

background textures

While many of the tips have focused on static background elements, there’s no rule that says a background can’t be dynamic.

To make the most of this type of background texture, the movement should be subtle so that it doesn’t detract from the main image or messaging. Including a muted or subtle color palette, such as Latvian Alphabet, above, is a great option as well.

This animation can include elements that move or twist or turn or video. Motion is a good way to grab the attention of users. Make the most of an animated background texture by ensuring that this motion doesn’t overwhelm the foreground of the design.


A great background texture can add depth and visual interest to your overall website design. While many designers are still using more flat backgrounds – such as single color – adding a hint of texture can make your project stand out.

The trick to using textures is that they have to be subtle and actually fall into the background so that foreground elements are easy to read and understand. That can be a pretty delicate balance. Remember to establish plenty of contrast between background textures and foreground images, user interface elements and text to maximize the impact of the overall design.

Source : DesignShack

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Make the Web Your Playground with Wix

For web designers, it’s important to take advantage of tools that empower you to do your thing without getting in your way. You need flexibility and efficiency without sacrificing quality. The amazing thing is that you no longer need to hop around from tool to tool to get the best of everything.

With Wix, you have it all in one place. Wix provides web professionals with a platform that enables total creative freedom. You can build the exact website you want with no comprises. In other words, Wix helps you to make the web your playground.

Professional Quality Websites Built Your Way

Whatever your project requirements, budget or timeframe, Wix gives you plenty of options to make the most out of your site. You can start your build from scratch or take advantage of the hundreds of top-notch templates available to get you up and running in no time. Either way, you’ll have everything you need to design a fully-professional website that looks great on any device:

An Incredibly Simple UI

With the Wix Editor, the process of adding and positioning any of the hundreds of available design elements is a matter of dragging and dropping them within your template. There are no hoops to jump through. By making things simple, Wix helps you get projects done more quickly.

Code Friendly

Developers will love the power of using Wix Code. You’ll have full control of your site’s functionality using both JavaScript and Wix APIs. Create databases, dynamic content, custom forms and more. Even better is that everything works within the same, highly-visual, Wix UI.

Harness the Power of ADI

Want to take advantage of the future of design? Then you’ll want to check out Wix ADI (Artificial Design Intelligence). Just answer a few questions and the system will design a beautiful, unique site – just for you.

The Right Features for Any Type of Website

Whether you’re building a website for yourself or a client, you’ll find the features and functionality you need to do the job right. Among the features that can be easily added to your website:

Wix Stores

Sell physical or virtual goods online with ease. Inside, you’ll find the features you expect in an ecommerce suite, such as the ability to add unlimited products, manage shipping and pickup options, promotional tools like integrated email marketing, coupons and sale pricing. Plus, securely take payments via PayPal, credit card or even offline. A SSL certificate is included to ensure the utmost security.

Wix Bookings, Wix Hotels Booking System and Wix Restaurants

If your business needs the ability to take online bookings, Wix has you covered. Customers can book appointments, rooms or a table for two in a jiffy. You’ll love that all bookings come with no commission sales.

Wix Music

Musicians and bands can stream and sell their music directly from their own website. Listeners can share and download songs. Plus, it’s easy to bring in audio from outside sources such as Spotify and SoundCloud.

Wix Art Store

Artists now have a way to sell both digital and physical work with Wix Art Store. See your work appear on products such as bags, mugs, canvasses and more. And, you won’t have to worry about packing, shipping or payment processing – it’s all included.

Wix Blog

A full-featured blog is crucial to keeping in touch with your customers and the community at-large. With Wix Blogs, you can build a beautiful blog in just minutes. It comes complete with built-in social features and support for multiple authors.

Apps for Every Need

Need something else? You’re sure to find what you’re looking for in the Wix App Market. Explore the wide variety of available features you can add to your site with just a few clicks.

The Extras That Make a Difference

Wix not only offers you the world’s most technologically advanced platform for building websites, they also provide access to features and design assets that you won’t find anywhere else. At least, not under one roof! For example, the Wix Image Library contains thousands of images you can use for free (through Wix and Shutterstock) on your site. And you can display images, autoplay videos and text via over 30 high-quality media galleries.

Wix also understands the importance of building a site that is truly your own. So they have made the ability to customize every aspect of your site a priority. For instance, choose from hundreds of fonts or upload your own. Or add some modern touches with animation and parallax scrolling effects. When it comes to formatting, you can create grids and layouts that match your needs perfectly. And, while it’s important to have a site that’s both beautiful and functional, it’s just as vital to ensure that potential customers can find you.

That’s why Wix has integrated SEO tools to help you get listed in search engines. Plus, you’ll gain valuable insights through the new FAQ widget. It provides you with instant answers to the most common SEO-related questions.

Start Building with Wix for Free

If you haven’t tried Wix before, now is the time to take it for a test drive. Experience this all-in-one platform’s power and user-friendly UI. Discover the possibilities for building an amazing, mobile-friendly website in the most efficient way possible. Want to learn more about how web professionals are using Wix? Check out their Playground and start building your own online masterpiece for free.

SOURCE : https://speckyboy.com/

AUTHOR : Eric Karkovack

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Serial Position Effect: How to Create Better User Interfaces

Learn about the limits of your user’s short-term memory by understanding how the serial position effectworks and how you can manipulate it in the context of user experience design. Many of the most successful designs out there, produced by highly successful companies like Apple, Electronic Arts, and Nike, reflect an understanding of the serial position effect and how it influences their designs. This article will teach you the theories that support the serial position effect, and ways you can manipulate it in your design work so you can further improve user experience.

The Serial Position Effect

The serial position effect, a term coined by Hermann Ebbinghaus, a German psychologist and pioneer of memory research, describes how the position of an item in a sequence affects recall accuracy. There are two main concepts involved in the serial position effect:

  1. The Primacy EffectItems that are presented at the beginning of a list are recalled with greater accuracy than items in the middle of a list.
  2. The Recency EffectItems that appear at the end of a list are also more likely to elicit better recall than items presented in the middle of a list.

Author/Copyright holder: WikiPremed. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-SA 3.0

This graph illustrates the tendency of a user to better recall items from the beginning as well as the end of a list or sequence. The middle items are the most difficult to remember.

The Primacy Effect

The theory for the primacy effect is that the greater accuracy of recall is due to the relatively small amount of processing effort expended in rehearsing the item by itself. This is in contrast to proceeding items (in the middle of a sequence) which must be rehearsed with all the other preceding information (in the beginning of a sequence); causing significant cognitive burden and affecting recall.

This theory is supported by experimental findings from ‘A two-process account of long-term serial position effects’ by Glenberg et al. (1980), where the primacy effect no longer appears when participants get a rapid presentation of list items; whilst presenting items slowly improves recall. As expected, they found that the more time between being exposed to each item, the greater chance there is for the participant to rehearse previous items in order to store them into their memory.

The Recency Effect

The theory for the recency effect is that recall is better for items appearing towards the end of a sequence due to their preservation in our working memory, the part of our short-term memory that processes conscious and immediate perceptual information. Our working memory holds transitory information and acts as a buffer for new information while it assimilates into other memory systems.

Cognitive scientists Murray Glanzer and Anita Cunitz (1966) conducted an item recall test to assess whether recency and primacy are enduring effects if there exists a distracter task between the information study phase and test phase.

Results showed the primacy effect was present even after the 30-second interference task, but the recency effect was no longer present. Therefore, when distracter tasks are employed during recall tests, the recency effect disappears, supporting the theory that improved recall is due to recent items being sustained in a temporary memory system, such as working memory. Glanzer and Cunitz concluded that the capacity of human short term memory is likely to be three to four chunks of information at one time.

Consequences of the Serial Position Effect in User Interface Design

The effect of recency and primacy have implications for the design of user interfaces. Presenting long lists of information places significant strain on limited attentional resources and restricted memory systems, especially short-term memory, where only three or four items or chunks of information can be maintained at one time. Our ability to recall previously presented items is also severely impacted by events between initial processing and later recall.

Four Ways to Effectively Manage the Serial Position Effect in Your Designs

Knowing that the positioning of an item can affect user experience by causing information in the middle of a sequence to be harder to recall, it can be helpful to minimize the effect it has on your users. By understanding how to manipulate the order of information and minimize the serial position effect, you can reduce strain on your user’s memory load and limit the distraction that exists between presentation and recall of information.

Here are 4 ways you can design better user experiences by understanding how the serial position effect affects your users:

1. Maintain Task-relevant Information within the User Interface

Maintain task-relevant information within the user interface to minimize the tax on your user’s cognitive resources. Provide tools to guide your user toward their goals, helping them be more efficient and more accurate in their tasks.

Creative tools like Keynote by Apple Inc., Photoshop by Adobe, and Microsoft Word by Microsoft provide users with page number information, rulers, and grids to help the user create better work and be faster at it.

Keynote, a presentation software application developed by the multi-national technology company, Apple Inc., maintains task-relevant information for users so that they can more easily create presentation slides by providing things like page number and status, grid lines, and rulers.

2. Include Cues in the User Interface

Include cues in the user interface whenever possible as they can initiate recognition, the identification of something previously encountered, and recall, the action of remembering something previously learned or experienced. Provide various perceptual cues like sounds created by cause-and-effect (e.g., a “bling” sound goes off when a video game character collects gold coins), or provide a map or speedometer on the interface of a racing game.

Author/Copyright holder: Need for Speed Most Wanted 2005. Copyright terms and licence: Fair Use.

Need for Speed, a racing video game developed by American gaming company, Electronic Arts, Inc., includes cues in the user interface to let the user know where they’re at at all times by providing a map on the bottom left and a speedometer on the bottom right.

3. Limit the Amount of Recall Required

Limit the amount of recall required across parts of the dialogue by retaining relevant information at all points of a task, when necessary, or offer simple means of retrieving this information. Human attention is limited and we are only capable of maintaining up to around five items in our short-term memory. Due to the limitations of short-term memory, designers should ensure users are only faced with less than five items at any one time within the dialogue. Many online retailers know that it’s important to keep the user informed as they move through the user flow of product purchasing.

Author/Copyright holder: Nike, Inc. Copyright terms and licence: Fair Use.

The website by Nike Inc., the multinational corporation providing apparel and equipment, shows what filters the user has chosen at every step in their shopping experience, as well as what the products are sorted by.

<img “=”” src=”https://public-media.interaction-design.org/images/uploads/db170ae6784582af56e2e43fe9a0996e.jpg” class=”layzr-loaded lightense-target”>Author/Copyright holder: Amazon.com Copyright terms and licence: Fair Use.

The website by Amazon Inc., the American e-commerce and cloud computing company, shows the user how many items are in the cart at every step in their shopping experience, where to go for help-related information, as well as relevant offers prior to purchase.

4. Emphasize Key Information in the Beginning and End

Emphasize key information in the beginning and the end, while placing the least important items in the middle of your sequence. The primacy and recency effect explains that people remember information more accurately when it is consumed early on and at the end of a sequence.

Many landing pages are designed to support this concept. In the example below, we will examine the serial position effect by dividing Apple iPad Air 2’s landing page into three sections based on its apparent content: Beginning, middle, and end. You can also see this reflected in speech writing and textbook writing as well, where the important information is emphasized in the beginning and re-iterated at the end.

Author/Copyright holder: Apple Inc. Copyright terms and licence: Fair Use.

The first section of the landing page that sells the iPad Air 2, a product by Apple Inc., communicates the key reason why you should buy their product at the beginning of the page sequence.

Author/Copyright holder: Apple Inc. Copyright terms and licence: Fair Use.

In the middle of the landing page sequence of the iPad Air 2, there are chunks of relatively less important information compared to the beginning and the end of the page. This reflects the designer’s understanding of the serial position effect on their users.

Author/Copyright holder: Apple Inc. Copyright terms and licence: Fair Use.

The final section of iPad Air 2’s landing page, provides the call-to-action activities a user would expect to find at the end of any sales pitch. Need special financing? Need fast delivery? Get help buying and click to learn more.

The Take Away

Design should reduce the strain on users by understanding the limits of their short term memory, such as the limitations highlighted in the serial position effect. Knowing the serial position effect, we should aim to empower the user by maintaining task-relevant information on the screen when necessary, including cues in the user interface, limiting the amount of recall required across parts of the dialogue, and emphasize key information in the beginning and end of a sequence whenever possible. By understanding your user’s cognitive processes and incorporating this knowledge into your designs, you will be better equipped to create more powerful and intuitive user experiences.

References & Where To Learn More

To view more information on the primacy effect, please see:


To view more information on the recency effect, please see:


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Don’t Make Me Think – Key Learning Points for UX Design for the Web

Don’t Make Me Think is the title of a book by the HCI and Usability engineer Steve Krug. It teaches UX designers how to deliver great user experiences in a very simple and accessible way. Since its release in the year 2000 it has become one of the defining texts in the industry and an invaluable guide to UX professionals around the world.

Don’t Make Me Think was written by Steve Krug to help people think like usability experts do. It was designed to be short, concise and very much to the point. The idea being that if it can be read in less than 2 hours and covers all the most important concepts of usability; it would be much easier to get people who don’t normally have responsibility for UX to get on board with the ideas and to promote them from within their organizations.

Author/Copyright holder:Austin Kleon. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

This has made it one of the most popular books in the UX and usability field and to date it has sold nearly 500,000 copies and been published in 20 different languages!

Steve has also written a sequel; Rocket Surgery Made Easy is a practical guide to usability testing that can be used by just about anyone to examine their web site, software or app to see that their products are as usable as possible.

Key Ideas from Don’t Make Me Think

We strongly recommend that you read Steve’s book. It really is incredibly short and it will ensure that you get a strong grounding in usability without spending half your life studying the research that surrounds the area. As a way of introduction (or refreshment if you have already read the book), here are some key lessons in the book that are worth highlighting:

Usability Is…

Usability is simply the idea that a normal person should be able to use your products without finding the process frustrating or annoying. Usability is making sure things work well and are easy to use. Spoons, for example, are incredibly usable .

Author/Copyright holder: Scott Bauer. Copyright terms and licence: Public Domain

Self Explanatory is the Way Forward

Whenever a user opens an app or a web page they should be able to tell you at a glance what it’s for. It should be as obvious as can be what the purpose of things is.

Don’t Make Me (or Anyone) Think

If you make people think, you make them unhappy. Users don’t want to treat your site or app like some sort of cryptic crossword – they want to know what they should do immediately and then do it. The more you make people think, the more likely they are to go elsewhere to get the job done.

Time Wasting Sucks

Author/Copyright holder: PROangie werren. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-ND 2.0

People go online to save time not to spend it. If you waste people’s time they move on. This should be obvious when you think about the fact that even page loading times are considered in Google ranks.

Let Me Go Back

As long as the back button works, mistakes don’t matter too much from a user’s perspective. The back button is the most used feature on the internet today. Make sure people can get back to where they started if they get lost.

People are Habitual

If something works well – people will tend to stick to using that. Even if there’s a better way to do something out there – it’s unlikely that they’ll go looking for it. That doesn’t mean that they won’t eventually have it called to their attention but if you make things usable; you make them sticky.

Get to the Point

Again with the time saving – people don’t look for pleasantries on the internet; they want to get to the point. Make sure your sites and apps do just that.

Some People Love Search

You need to have a search facility within your web app or site. There’s a certain group of users who have become search-dependent. If you don’t give them the option; they’ll go elsewhere.

Author/Copyright holder:Panagiotis Georgiou. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

People remember the experience of interacting with web sites and applications. They learn where to find what they want and how to do what they do. When you mess with the site map – you mess with their ability to recall these steps and make things confusing for returning users.

Show Them the Way to Go Home

The home button is the ultimate emergency exit for users. If they get really, really lost and even the back button isn’t helping – they need a single click to get them home. Make sure it’s obvious and immediate.

The Take Away

Don’t Make Me Think is all about simple ideas and simple ways to put them into practice. Of course, there’s more to usability than Steve’s brilliant guide can contain but all the major fundamentals for UX designers are there and they’re very easy to get at. Usability is one of the four main building blocks of UX (along with desirability, value and adoptability) and it’s vital to get to grips with it to build awesome apps and websites.


Don’t Make Me Think by Steve Krug can be purchased at Amazon here (please note the Interaction DesignFoundation is not an Amazon affiliate and does not receive any commission on purchases made) – http://www.amazon.com/Dont-Make-Think-Revisited-Usability/dp/0321965515/ref=dp_ob_title_bk

Hero Image: Author/Copyright holder: keso s. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

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Remember the days when hovering and clicking with the mouse were the most used triggers for interaction with a site or app? Those days are gone. When Apple introduced the first iPhone, multi-touch technology became mainstream and users learned that they could not only point and tap on the interface, but also pinch, spread, and swipe. Gestures became the new clicks.

Today the success of a mobile UI can be made by how effectively it uses gestures.

How to Choose a Good Gesture

When it comes to incorporating gestures in your UI it’s essential to know your market and the other apps your target audience may be using. Try to employ the same types of gestures in your app. This way, you aren’t only optimising your UI based on your target market’s behaviour, but also designing a more comfortable approach for users right from the beginning.

Teaching Gestures

Gestures are a must in every mobile app but it’s always a challenge to make them obvious for users. Touch interfaces provide many opportunities to use natural gestures like tap, swipe and pinch to get things done, but unlike graphical user interface controls, gesture-based interactions are often hidden from users. So unless users have prior knowledge that a gesture exists, they won’t try.

Therefore design for discovery is crucial. You need to be sure you provide the right cues—visual signifiers that help users discover easily how they can interact with an interface.

Avoid Tutorials and Walkthroughs During Onboarding

Tutorials and walkthroughs are quite a popular practice for gesture-driven apps. Incorporating tutorials in your app in many cases means showing some instructions to the user to explain the interface. However, a UI tutorial isn’t the most elegant way to explain the core functionality of an app. The major problem with upfront tutorials is that users have to remember all of those new ways of using the app once they get in. Too much information at once might lead to more confusion. For example, the Clear app starts with a mandatory 7-page tutorial and users have to patiently read all the information and try to commit it to their memory. That’s bad design because it requires users to work upfront even before they actually try the app.


Educate in Context of the Action

When it comes to teaching users to use your UI, I would recommend doing so mainly by educating in the context of the action (when a user actually needs it). In order to teach people a new gesture you have to start slowly. Given some iteration, instructions can be transformed into a more gradual discovery. Use just in time tips and focus on explaining a single interaction rather than trying to explain every possible action in the user interface. Hint at gestures by providing obvious, contextual clues.

Below you can see a gesture education screen from the YouTube app for Android. The app has a gesture-based interaction but doesn’t use a tutorial to instruct users. Instead, it uses hints that appear on the first launch for new users, one at a time as the user reaches the relevant section of the app. The technique is based on text commands which prompt users to perform a gesture and describes the result of the interaction with a short and clear description.


Use Animation to Communicate Gestures

Gestures, usable as they are, would be nothing without animation. As a designer, you can make use of animation to convey information about available actions. For example, in order to make users aware that they can interact with a certain element, you can create a text command right on the interactive element and animate the result of interaction as shown in example below.


There are three popular techniques to help educate users, based on the use of animation. The first is a hint motion. Hint motion, or animated visual hint, shows a preview of how to interact with an element when performing the action. It aims to create associations between the gesture and the action that it triggers. For example, Pudding Monsters’ game mechanics are based solely on gestures, but they allow users to get the basic idea of what to do without having to guess. Animation conveys information about functionality—a scenario is showcased with animation and it immediately becomes clear to users what to do.


A second technique is content teases. Content teases are subtle visual clues that indicate what’s possible. An example below demonstrates a content tease for cards—it simply shows that other cards exist behind a current card and this makes it clear that swiping is possible.


The third and last technique that I would like to mention is affordance. You can give some elements of your UI a high affordance to point users to features in an interface, and use bounces or pulses as an indicator of an available gesture. An example of this technique can be found in Apple iOS. When a user taps the camera icon, the lock screen bounces up, revealing the camera app underneath.



While it’s true that touch gestures are mostly invisible to us, there are a number of design techniques that can give users a peek at what’s possible. Just in time tips, animation cues and content teases are some of the ways hidden gestures can be revealed.

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Prototyping in Design Thinking: How to Avoid Six Common Pitfalls

The Design Thinking process cannot be done without prototyping and testing. However, for companies or teams unfamiliar with the Design Thinking method, there might be some common mindsets about prototyping that potentially undermine its effectiveness in helping you craft the optimal design solutions. Let’s look at six of the most common misconceptions about prototyping, and how to combat each so that you can avoid these pitfalls and build better products or services.

If you were not (or if your team is not) familiar with Design Thinking, you might have some ideas about prototyping — what it’s meant for, when it should be done, etc. — that are actually counter-productive to the process. Thankfully, we have listed below six of the most common misconceptions or incorrect mindsets, as well as solutions to each to help you reframe your mindset or rethink your process. Let’s get started!

1st Pitfall: Diving into the First Good Idea

It’s attractive to want to grab at the first glimmer of light you see and run with that as your final solution. This is often inspired by a senior manager, not necessarily involved in the process of prototyping or ideation, who might not have enough understanding of how it works. Often, teams try to save time and move headlong into implementing their very first promising idea.

This leads to an issue, because most problems we are trying to solve are more complex than they look on the surface. The way people behave, constraints in the environment, and a thousand other factors might cause matters to turn out differently from your or your team’s expectations. A promising idea, pushed all the way into a fully formed solution without any prototyping or validation, may turn out to have a couple of assumptions wrong (if you are lucky). The result is a solution that doesn’t work, and lots of time and energy wasted.

Solution: Explore a Range of Different Approaches First

One of the keys of successful prototyping is working through a number of models and exploring different approaches, before finally including the best characteristics and removing the problematic ones for the final solution. Test out many ideas. Test them by building prototypes — no matter how rough and simple — and test them on team-mates, internal stakeholders, and users. Test many alternatives even within one idea, explore variety, and don’t discount possibilities until you’ve tested them. Most times, you will be inspired to create more ideas, or merge a few solutions into a better and more successful one, by testing alternative ideas and making quick and dirty prototypes.

2nd Pitfall: Falling in Love with Your Prototypes

The endowment effect, otherwise referred to as “investment bias”, can interfere significantly with the value derived from prototyping. The endowment effect happens when people ascribe more value to an object simply because they have ownership over it. In prototypes, the endowment effect can create the dangerous situation wherein prototypes become too “precious” to fail or give up on.

This is when the creators of a prototype becomes overly invested in their creation, resulting in their overlooking of faults and insistence on implementing the current model due to the amount of time, effort or resources invested in creating the model. It can happen when designers become too emotional about prototypes or ideas that they have conceived, even when it becomes clear that the ideas are problematic. This usually happens when designers spend too much time creating and perfecting a prototype, when a rough and dirty model would suffice. Additionally, executing early prototypes at too high a fidelity may result in this kind of bias. If we were to do this with a prototype, the effort we’d put into making it as realistic and looking as refined as possible (without reckoning on refining the actual faults in it) might help us dupe ourselves into believing we’d landed on a miracle discovery—a winner that would be sure to resonate with users. Usually, low-fidelity prototypes, such as paper mock-ups or sketches, are sufficient for early stage testing. Only towards the end of the project do you need to create higher-fidelity prototypes that require more energy and time investment.

Author/Copyright holder: Teo Yu Siang and Interaction Design Foundation. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Avoid the endowment effect by creating quick, low-fidelity prototypes using cheap materials.

Solution: Start with Cheap and Fast Prototypes

Start simple. Make quick and fast prototypes. Make use of low cost, readily available materials in early-stage, low-fidelity prototypes. Always make sure that your prototype has just the level of detail required for what you are testing for, never too much. This would prevent you or your team-mates from becoming too attached to a prototype.

Also, be prepared to break, completely destroy or throw those models away once the questions they pose are answered. You can achieve this mentality by using low-cost materials in your prototypes. Test out a number of ideas and models as rapidly as possible in order to avoid becoming anchored to one stream of thought. Having an expendable prototype is a million times better than having an expendable concept—i.e., one that won’t latch with anyone, least of all your usership, no matter how fancy the model of it looks.

3rd Pitfall: Wasting Time Explaining and Pitching

Another problem you should avoid is spending too much time pitching and explaining ideas — and too little time making things and figuring out issues with and challenges to your ideas. This results in a theoretical focus and could lead to moving forward with ideas that you will not have tested. Show; don’t tell. To explain how a solution works, create a model and show how it will work. If you are unable to show it working, you may find there are holes in the idea — and that’s a learning opportunity right there!

Solution: Have a Bias Towards Action

Embrace the bias towards action mindset by opting to show the value of the ideas instead of telling everyone how great your combination of these notions will be. When you build simple prototypes to show what your ideas are, you also make them much easier to understand and allow others to build on them. Illustrate what you want to explain physically. It’s the best way to know whether you’re on to something or not.

For instance, when IDEO was approached by Gyrus ACMI, a medical visualisation and energy systems company, the team met with specialist surgeons so as to understand their needs better. After one of the surgeons explained (or tried to explain) how their surgical instrument could be improved, an IDEO designer immediately created a rough prototype of the idea. The team was able to understand instantly what the surgeon meant, and the discussion was brought forward, thereby saving the team many more meetings. Prototype to show, because showing is much more productive than telling.

4th Pitfall: Prototyping Without a Purpose

Rushing a promising idea into a solution is a bad idea, but creating prototypes without a purpose is equally bad. Prototypes exist for a reason: to test and validate assumptions, test our ideas for solutions, or explain and flesh out ideas. Prototyping for the sake of prototyping can result in a lack of focus, or prototypes with too much detail (i.e., a waste of time) or too little detail (i.e., ineffective in tests).

Solution: Have a Question in Mind

Before you create a prototype, ask yourself, “Why am I creating this prototype?” Make sure you have a central purpose (i.e., to test my assumption X, or to test the usability of my solution, etc.), and then build your prototype to match that purpose. For instance, if you need to test your assumption that your users will not be willing to use a piece of equipment heavier than 2 kg, then you might not even need to create a functional prototype. Simply create a prototype that weighs below 2 kg, and another that weighs above 2kg, and test both on users. You’ll save time by creating prototypes at the right level of fidelity, and still be able to learn exactly what you want to learn.

5th Pitfall: The Failure Roadblock: Feeling Discouraged by Failed Prototypes

When prototyping, you might feel a sense of failure at times. This is because the steps involved in prototyping might fall into what we generally label as “failure”, especially when tests reveal your false assumptions. However, being disillusioned when your ideas don’t work out can cause a negative state of mind and inhibit progress. The point of prototyping is to ensure ideas will work and to validate the assumptions made when conceptualising the ideas. To be productive when prototyping, we should unlearn what we are taught about failure. When doing Design Thinking, you should embrace the right kind of failure. Failure provides massive learning opportunities, which will eventually lead to new insights and eventual success.

“Fail faster, succeed sooner.”
— David Kelly, founder of IDEO

Solution: Reframe the Idea of Failure

Author/Copyright holder: Teo Yu Siang and Interaction Design Foundation. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

“I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.”
– Thomas A. Edison, American inventor who developed the motion picture camera and the electric light bulb.

Reframe the idea of failure in prototype testing into a learning mentality. Remind yourself that wrong ideas and failed prototypes allow you to learn more than successful tests and prototypes do. Embrace the principles of learn methodology by working validation into every decision that you make or have a hand in making. Validation reframes the concept of failure and makes it part of the process of learning instead of being a destructive influence. When you think of prototypes and tests as learning opportunities, you set yourself up for a kind of positive failure that leads to a new, more informed experiment.

6th Pitfall: Seeing Prototypes as a Waste of Time

By constantly having to build prototypes for every idea and assumption that you have, wouldn’t you be wasting time? Many times, designers and teams who are not used to Design Thinking feel that prototyping is a waste of time and resources. “Wouldn’t building prototypes slow us down?” they ask. “Wouldn’t we be better off to stay focussed on the drawing board before we get around to putting things together in the real world?”

The truth is the opposite. Although we might spend time when we build prototypes, they actually allow us to move faster in the long term. It’s because, through prototyping, we are able to see whether our ideas would work out, and be able to refine or tweak them further… or abandon them when we’ve realised that what seemed good on paper won’t hold water in the sea of harsh reality and unforgiving consumers. In the long term, we will be able to reach the ideal solution faster.

Solution: Adopt a Long-Term View

Build with a long-term view in mind. When making prototypes to test your assumptions or learn about your users, remember that the small amount of time you are spending now will help you save days and even weeks of time in the future. Communicate to internal stakeholders who may be concerned about the time “wasted” on prototypes, so the whole team (and ideally, the whole company) is on the same page. It may be counter-intuitive, but spending time on prototypes will save you time. Tim Brown, CEO of IDEO, says it best: “They slow us down to speed us up.”

The Take Away

Prototyping is crucial in every Design Thinking project. However, there are pitfalls that could undermine your efforts to let prototypes work for your team. Specifically, you have six of these to avoid, everything from becoming discouraged by the insight-giving nature of failed prototypes to putting inordinate amounts of effort into your first prototype and clinging to it because it seems infallible. Learn to embrace the idea of constantly and rapidly prototyping, and make sure you have the right mindset when making prototypes. The old saying goes that nothing is more powerful than an idea whose time has come. That may seem all very well, but a series of prototypes will bring such an idea into the real world where people can make it truly powerful.

References & Where to Learn More

Tim Brown, Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation, 2009

Peter Manzo. Sep. 23, 2008. Fail Faster, Succeed Sooner. Stanford Social Innovation Reviewhttp://www.ssireview.org/blog/entry/fail_faster_succeed_sooner/

Tom Kelley and Dave Kelley, Creative Confidence: Unleashing the Creative Potential Within Us All, 2013.

Hero Image: Author/Copyright holder: Unknown. Copyright terms and licence: CC0

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When it comes to first impressions, design is everything. From colors, copy on buy buttons, to the layout of a website.

Tapping into what makes brains tick is important for this, and certain aesthetics as far as design goes are much more persuasive if you want the visitors to take some kind of action on your website.

When you combine behavioral and brain science with practical experience, you will get a much deeper insight into how and why humans behave like they do, and what you can do to get them to do what you want on your website.

What is Consumer Psychology?

Understanding why and how individuals evaluate objects and events is one of the main aims of consumer psychology.

Numerous studies have gotten us to an understanding that those choices and evaluations aren’t only driven by the value and quality of an object, but by internal factors, such as subjective perceptions, as well.

People may abandon a website due to numerous reasons. If you’re lucky, they will come back and finish whatever they started, but this seldom happens and people just forget about it. Abandoners can actually be hot prospects, and you’ll find that companies spend a lot of money to re-engage them, in order for them to come back and finish what they started.

1. Use Psychological Distance

The way we construct an object, cognitively, is impacted by our conceptual distance from that object.

Low-level construal will relate to the specific, concrete features, such as price, function, color, and size, while the high-level construal will relate to the experience one has with that object, as an abstract concept.

If you describe a broken link as unclickable, that is low-level construal. However, if you describe that the interaction leads to frustration, that is high-level construal.

2. Understand the Primacy Effect

The primacy effect tells us that whenever we have a choice between a list of things, our brains will remember the first couple of things more than the ones later on.

Things that are at the beginning of a list are regarded to be more important. One of the major reasons this works is because an individual will pay more attention at the start, and later on drift off, because their brain is either bored or tired.

3. Design for Humans

One often overlooked concept when building your website is to design for humans first. More importantly, design for your specific target market first.

Does your product, be it an app, or a website, or software, engage your audience?

Does it push people into taking action?

If something makes sense to you, that doesn’t necessarily mean that it’ll make sense for a visitor, or your business. Your visitor’s behavior on the page is directly related to how their body and mind respond to the combination of copy and design you have placed in front of them.

4. Color Influences Shoppers

You will find it fascinating that certain colors can actually convey different actions and emotions.


Mostly due to the fact that personal preference, history, and other things, can influence the meaning of certain colors, has led to there being a lot of theories about color.

Red might mean one thing to me, and a completely different thing to you, so understanding the color theory fundamentals is pretty important.

5. Decision Making Can be Simplified with Contrast

Two of the biggest enemies of our brain are complexity and ambiguity. If a visitor has too many options, that can stifle their process of making a decision, and lead to them abandoning your website simply because they had too overwhelming a decision to make.

Some services or products are complicated by themselves, and you should go with a softer approach that will support the process of making a decision, instead of focusing on pushing the sale.


Our brains love clear contrast and simplicity, and that knowledge can be used to push your visitors towards taking an action.


Have you ever found yourself at the grocery store, trying to decide which kind of chocolate to go for? That same thing happens to your visitor when he has far too many options.


This can be too much for a visitor to handle, regardless of whether you have too many products, or too many images, or too many shipping options.

They will leave, not complete a purchase, and not take the desired action.

6. Informational Social Influence

This (aka social proof) is a phenomenon that dictates that in order to conform to their choices, people will adopt the actions of others. Social proof has a lot do to with a herd behavior.

You’ll find that our brain goes where other people are going, and the decision-making center of our brain has a direct link to the area which is responsible for rewards and social learning.

Seeing what choice someone else made, will activate that center and cause us to follow their lead.


7. Nudge Visitors Toward Making Smaller Commitments

A visitor will often abandon your site because they aren’t ready to buy yet. Over half of online shoppers actually use the shopping cart to see how much the total costs are. And, the same number of shoppers actually add items over several visits before they check out.

Although they may convert later, you’ll find that the Foot in the Door technique can help their decision to buy from you. This will involve you asking for small commitments first, before moving on to things that require a larger commitment.

8. Faces are Sincere and Humanizing

Who doesn’t want to see a smiling face?

It is most likely one of the most pleasant, familiar things in the world. It is one of the rare things that everyone understands, regardless of their background or the language they speak.

Our brains actually have cells that only respond to faces, a part called the Fusiform Gyrus, and there isn’t a single other object that can get this part of the brain to spark.


So, if you have a picture of someone that is looking directly at what you want your visitor to pay attention to, that may very well help you.

9. Encourage Visitors to Complete with the Illusion of Progress

You might’ve seen frequent buyer cards that have a few items pre-stamped on them, and you may be wondering what is the psychology behind that.

A study has actually shown that people who get pre-stamped cards actually buy more frequently than those with empty cards.

The existing stamps will give your customers a feeling of being closer to their goal. This will motivate them to complete their card, and reach the goal. This same principle can be used to get your abandoners to come back and finish their purchase.

Final Thoughts

Now that you have a few design tactics to implement, you can go ahead and get started with them, putting them into play.

When you’re looking at your website data and the abandonment history, you’ll find some visitor journeys a little illogical. However, psychologists have actually shown that a lot of consumer behavior tendencies aren’t only explainable, but also predictable.

If you understand these tendencies, you can easily develop a strategy that works with these mental processes, instead of against them. If you know what will make your visitors tick, that is the key to developing a remarketing message that will make them click.

SOURCE : webdesignerdepot.com

AUTHOR : Bogdan Sandu

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Key Question in User Experience Design – Usability vs Desirability

The question of what usability is compared to desirability comes up a lot in UX design and it’s important to be able to distinguish the two. Why? Because usability is the base level of the user experience and without usability it is difficult to create a worthwhile user experience; however, without desirability it is unlikely that the user experience will leave a lasting mark on the user and the UX may not be memorable or recommendable to others.

There are four simple levels of User Experience as defined by the Nielsen Norman Group Conference in Amsterdam in 2008. They are:

  • Utility
  • Usability
  • Desirability
  • Brand Experience

The two levels which the user experience designer has most control over are usability and desirability. But first let’s take a look at each level in turn before examining why the difference between usability and desirability matters.

1. Utility

The very first step of the user experience is utility. The questions that must be answered for a product to have utility are:

  • Is the product useful to the user? Does it have a purpose that the user accepts? (In short the product must not be a solution in search of a problem but rather one that solves an established problem the user is looking to solve).
  • Does the product meet the needs of the user? (A product can solve a problem but still not be of any value unless it meets the user’s requirements in other areas – such as cost or size).

Without utility it’s pretty clear that there is no user experience. A potential user who does not see a product as any value to them or does not perceive that product to meet their needs is not going to become a user in the first place.

Author/Copyright holder: Jon Duhig. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY 2.0

2. Usability

Usability is the next step up the user experience ladder. It answers the question (positively):

  • Is the product easy and intuitive to use? (Many a great idea has failed when translated into a product by falling at this hurdle – a user only has so much time, if they can’t quickly get to grips with using a product – they will abandon it and move on).
  • Does the user like the way that this product looks and feels?
  • Does the user want this product more than similar products

Usability was often mistaken for the user experience until fairly recently. The assumption, that a product which solved a problem (e.g. it had utility) and was easy to use (e.g. it had usability) was enough for users, was a sensible idea but it turns out that this is not enough. The user expects more from a user experience and products that go beyond the usability phase are those that compete best in their market place. Apple’s iPod, for example, was not the first MP3 player. It may have had slight usability advantages over existing products but these advantages were not sufficient to propel the iPod to a world-changing market leading product; it was moving up the value chain of user experience that enabled that.

3. Desirability

Which brings us to desirability. There are some big questions associated with this level of the user experience:

In any category of product, there are many competitors. Assuming that the market for the product is established; it’s likely that almost all products within the marketplace pass both the utility and usability tests. It is the desirability of the product which separates market leaders from the pack.

It is also desirability which commands a premium in market places. Think about cars, for example, a Skoda and a BMW may both have utility and be usable but there’s a significant difference in their desirability by users.

Desirability enables the user experience designer to add “cachet” to a product which would otherwise be lost in amongst other similar products in terms of utility and usability.

Author/Copyright holder: M 93. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-SA 3.0

4. Brand Experience

Brand experience is, to a large extent, outside of the user experience designer’s control. However, brand experience is intimately connected to the desirability of products and it might even be argued that it is not separate from desirability. Brand experience answers the question:

  • Does the user feel good about the product and the company/brand that makes it?

This may explain why Microsoft has had such a hard time breaking in to the hardware market an area in which Apple, for example, excels. Windows may be the dominant operating system on the desktop but it would be hard to argue that Windows users feel good about that. Whereas Apple users do, and are highly vocal about, feel good about the operating systems of our their devices.

Apple’s brand increases the desirability of their physical products – the company has a great reputation for flawless design (there are, of course, plenty of arguments to suggest that this reputation is not always deserved but the reputation remains nonetheless). Microsoft’s reputation for Windows products is less salubrious – not because Windows products don’t work but for every great release (Windows XP, or Windows NT) there’s a poor one to contend with (Windows 7 or Windows ME).

Author/Copyright holder: Soft 9000. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY 3.0

Usability vs Desirability

As UX designers, we have major influence over these two areas of the user experience. The key difference between the two is that usability is a minimum requirement – there is no user experience without usability. Desirability changes a product from usable into something that a user wants to use.

It is important in today’s always connected world, to consider mobile when measuring usability and desirability. While many of the ways we examine mobile products are the same as the way we examine desktop products – mobile products should be examined for usability and desirability in context of their use. (E.g. where and when and how will a mobile product be used?) This is more important on mobile because desktop products tended to be used in fixed places – mobile can be used anywhere.

The Take Away

Usability is the bare minimum requirement of delivering a decent user experience. Desirability is what separates a great product from an average one – it focuses not just on ease of use but the idea that a user can want to use a product in preference to another. Utility, is an essential but one to be considered before design commences. Brand experience is something likely to be outside of the user experience team’s control and to lay more within marketing’s purview.


A good examination of desirability with the UX context can be found here – http://definedesirability.tumblr.com/post/76836338838/usability-vs-user-experience-ux

You can discover the key differences between usability and UX here – http://usabilitygeek.com/the-difference-between-usability-and-user-experience/

This presentation looks at how you bridge the gap between usability and desirability – http://www.slideshare.net/smercer0114/beyond-just-usability-desirability-and-usefulness-testing

Hero Image: Author/Copyright holder: Denlinkbarmann. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-ND 2.0

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May 2016 was when I started my design journey. start yours today!

Hello guys, My name is Henry and I am a Human-centered design advocate, The founder of a growing design agency in Lagos Nigeria, SENPAI, and I’m passionate about building a community of human-centered designers, developers, and creators. Hope this article helps you achieve greater things.

Designers have been in a very awkward space for a while now, stuck between pixel-pushers and font warriors. but things have begun to change as there are a “new” breed of designers breaking the barrier of mediocrity and stepping to the field to tackle bigger problems with “design thinking”. This is a trend that isn’t going anywhere anytime soon, designers are now taking the driver’s seat of innovation and we expect to see an increase in designers and the appreciation of design in the next couple of years.

So how do you get started as a designer in 2018?

1. Have a lot of empathy

Designers are simply people that have train themselves in the art of applying empathy to solve other people problems. This is the first step in the design thinking process.

In Design Thinking, empathy is, as explained in IDEO’s Human-Centred Design Toolkit, a “deep understanding of the problems and realities of the people you are designing for”. It involves learning about the difficulties people face, as well as uncovering their latent needs and desires in order to explain their behaviors. To do so, we need to have an understanding of the people’s environment, as well as their roles in and interactions with their environment.

This the foundation of every great designer and I would recommend we all spend more time here. here are some steps to help everyone gain more empathy for the people they are designing for

  • Abandon Your Ego
  • Adopt Humility
  • Be a Good Listener
  • Hone Your Observation skills
  • Care

“No one cares how much you know, until they know how much you care.”
– Theodore Roosevelt

  • Be Curious
  • Be Sincere
  • Ask What? How? Why?

2. Learn to see and draw

Before you begin to learn any design tools or any of the fundamentals of design you have to begin to train yourself to see good design and also be comfortable sketching as you would need this skill for rapid prototyping. These two are very important.

Learn to see

Looking back to when I first started designing, if there was a single thing I could go back and tell myself, that would be to train my design eye, my ability to critique and identify good design. — Jonathan Z. White

I personally learned how to see design by reading up about the design laws that apply to photography and also by following and being emerged with what I felt was good design.

Seeing not a passive act, but a conscious act of figuring out why something looks nice and why you may consider it to be good design.

It’s important to note the 10 principles of good design as you spend time looking and training your eyes.

Ten principles for good design by Dieter Rams

  1. Good design is innovative
  2. Good design makes a product useful
  3. Good design is aesthetic
  4. Good design makes a product understandable
  5. Good design is unobtrusive
  6. Good design is honest
  7. Good design is long-lasting
  8. Good design is thorough down to the last detail
  9. Good design is environmentally-friendly
  10. Good design is as little design as possible

Learn to draw

As a designer, you would have to be able to work with a vast amount of creative tools. but your most reliable tool would always be a pen and a paper. So you have to learn to get comfortable sketching out your ideas. I by no means expect you to start drawing portraits and crazy figures but you should be able to use simple lines and shapes to get your ideas into the world fast.

would recommend these resources

get the book You Can Draw in 30 days

How to Learn to Draw: Stage One, Manual Skills
We all used to draw as kids. It was easy back then, no matter if you used color pencils, a stick, or your finger on a…design.tutsplus.com

A quick beginner’s guide to drawing
6 drawing exercises to get you started right now!medium.com

3. Learn how to solve problems like a designer ( design thinking )

Designers are basically problem solvers. Your job as a design to apply the tools you have to solve problems. A global design company, IDEO, have created a system for design thinking that can be learnt and applied by anyone and everyone.


Design thinking is a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer’s toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” — Tim Brown, President and CEO of IDEO

How to apply design thinking to your problem-solving process?


The first stage of the Design Thinking process is to gain an empathic understanding of the problem you are trying to solve. This involves consulting experts to find out more about the area of concern through observing, engaging and empathizing with people to understand their experiences and motivations, as well as immersing yourself in the physical environment to have a deeper personal understanding of the issues involved. Empathy is crucial to a human-centered design process such as Design Thinking, and empathy allows design thinkers to set aside his or her own assumptions about the world in order to gain insight into users and their needs.

Define (the problem)

During the Define stage, you put together the information you have created and gathered during the Empathise stage. You will analyze your observations and synthesize them in order to define the core problems that you and your team have identified up to this point. You should seek to define the problem as a problem statement in a human-centered manner.


During the third stage of the Design Thinking process, designers are ready to start generating ideas. You’ve grown to understand your users and their needs in the Empathise stage, and you’ve analyzed and synthesized your observations in the Define stage, and ended up with a human-centered problem statement. With this solid background, yourself and your team members can start to ‘think outside the box’ to identify new solutions to the problem statement you’ve created, and you can start to look for alternative ways of viewing the problem.


The design team will now produce a number of inexpensive, scaled down versions of the product or specific features found within the product, so they can investigate the problem solutions generated in the previous stage. Prototypes may be shared and tested within the team itself, in other departments, or on a small group of people outside the design team. This is an experimental phase, and the aim is to identify the best possible solution for each of the problems identified during the first three stages.


Designers or evaluators rigorously test the complete product using the best solutions identified during the prototyping phase. This is the final stage of the 5 stage-model, but in an iterative process, the results generated during the testing phase are often used to redefine one or more problems and inform the understanding of the users, the conditions of use, how people think, behave, and feel, and to empathize. Even during this phase, alterations and refinements are made in order to rule out problem solutions and derive as deep an understanding of the product and its users as possible.

for more about design thinking check out these resources

5 Stages in the Design Thinking Process
Design Thinking is a design methodology that provides a solution-based approach to solving problems. It’s extremely…www.interaction-design.org

Design Thinking
Design thinking utilizes elements from the designer&#39;s toolkit like empathy and experimentation to arrive at…www.ideou.com

Design Kit
Design Kit is IDEO.org’s platform to learn human-centered design, a creative approach to solving the world’s most…www.designkit.org

4. Learn the fundamentals of design

The fundamentals of design consist of the elements and the principles of design

Design elements

  • line
  • shape
  • form
  • texture
  • color

I would recommend you watch this video below :)

Principles of design

  1. BALANCE — Balance in design is similar to balance in physics. A large shape close to the center can be balanced by a small shape close to the edge. Balance provides stability and structure to a design. It’s the weight distributed in the design by the placement of your elements.
  2. PROXIMITY — Proximity creates a relationship between elements. It provides a focal point. Proximity doesn’t mean that elements have to be placed together, it means they should be visually connected in some way.
  3. ALIGNMENT — Allows us to create order and organization. Aligning elements allows them to create a visual connection with each other.
  4. REPETITION — Repetition strengthens a design by tying together individual elements. It helps to create association and consistency. Repetition can create rhythm (a feeling of organized movement).
  5. CONTRAST — Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing elements (opposite colors on the color wheel, or value light/dark, or direction — horizontal/vertical). Contrast allows us to emphasize or highlight key elements in your design.
  6. SPACE — Space in art refers to the distance or area between, around, above, below, or within elements. Both positive and negative space are important factors to be considered in every design.

The principles of design
The elements and principles of design are the building blocks. The elements of design are the things that make up a…www.j6design.com.au

Now you are officially a designer and have learned the basics of design.

5. Now time to specialize in an area of design

There are different types of designers, most designers would have to wear multiple hats some just specialize in one. but here are your options for 2018.

Graphic Design

This is a term that describes an array of different kinds of designers. Think of it like the term “entrepreneur”. It describes a wide variety of businesspeople — from founders to VC’s to “Chief Ninjas” — but isn’t all-inclusive. Graphic designers work with graphical images, whether they be illustrations, typography, or images, and on a variety of media including print and web. Graphic design is typically rendered in 2D — printed on a physical surface or displayed on a screen but not limited to 2D.

As a graphic designer, you can specialize in the following

  • Logo design
  • Brand design
  • Print Designer

Interaction Design

Interaction designers, on the other hand, focus on digital products and interactive software design. Some examples include web apps like Facebookand Pinterest, mobile apps like Tweetbot, and operating systems like OS X. While graphic design is meant to be observed, interaction design helps humans experience or manipulate software or interface with screen-based hardware in order to achieve specific goals — checking email, withdrawing money from an ATM, or “Liking” a webpage (such as this one!)

“Interaction design is heavily focused on satisfying the needs and desires
of the people who will use the product.”

and can be broken down into two parts or the same whole

  • UI design — User interface design
  • UX design — User experience design

↳ User Interface Design

User Interface (UI) design is the design of software or websites with the focus on the user’s experience and interaction. The goal of user interface design is to make the user’s interaction as simple and efficient as possible. Good user interface design puts emphasis on goals and completing tasks, and good UI design never draws more attention to itself than enforcing user goals.

“The design process must balance technical functionality and visual elements to create a system that is not only operational but also usable and adaptableto changing user needs.”

↳ User Experience Design

User Experience (UX) design “incorporates aspects of psychology, anthropology, sociology, computer science, graphic design, industrial design and cognitive science. Depending on the purpose of the product, UX may also involve content design disciplines such as communication design, instructional design, or game design.”

The goal of UX design is to create a seamless, simple, and useful interaction between a user and a product, whether it be hardware or software. As with UI design, user experience design focuses on creating interactions designed to meet or assist a user’s goals and needs.

Industrial Design

Industrial designers create physical products designated for mass-consumption by millions of people. Motorcycles, iPods, toothbrushes, and nightstands are all designed by industrial designers. These people are masters of physical goods and innovation within the constraints of production lines and machines.

“The objective is to study both function and form, and the connection between product, the user, and the environment.”

Spatial design

Spatial design focuses upon the flow of people between multiple areas of interior and exterior environments and delivers value and understanding how user interact with spaces and also how the spaces affect the user’s emotions, perceptions, and feelings.

It goes really deep into understanding how space affects the humans in them

You can specialize in the following

  • Architecture
  • Interior design
  • Service design
  • Landspace design

6. Pick and learn your design tools

As design has started to evolve so have our tools. The basic tool all designers need is a pen and a piece of paper. If you are going more technical there are a vast amount of tools to choose from. here are my suggestions.

Graphic designers: Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop.

UX/UI designersAdobe XDfigma,Invision studio,sketch

I cant recommend for the rest as I do not have much expertise in those areas. Feel free to comment the tools for Industrial and spatial designers.

As you can see we picked the design tools after learning all about design. The problem with designers of the past is that they skip steps 1–5 and go straight to the tools and think they are now designers.

No, you only know how to use a tool you are not a designer. at least not yet.

7. Learn the business of design

As a creative, we often find it difficult talking about money or interacting with clients. Well, we would need to spend time learning about business. I would recommend non-other that TheFutur. Chris Do is doing an amazing job giving us free business tips and teach us how to navigate the industry.

The Futur: Revolutionizing Business Education for Creative Professionals
We’ve walked in your shoes. We graduated from design schools, fought tooth and nail for freelance gigs, established…www.thefutur.com

8. Build your portfolio

Get busy working and designing and building your portfolio

How do you build a portfolio if you’re just starting out for the first time? The good news is you don’t need to work on real projects with real clients to build a portfolio. Make up your own side projects. Here are a few ideas:

  • Design silly ideas for t-shirts.
  • Find poorly designed websites and redesign them.
  • Got an idea for an iPhone app? Mock it up.
  • Join a team at Startup Weekend and be a designer on a weekend project.
  • Enter a 99 designs contest to practice designing to a brief.
  • Do the graphic design exercises in the Creative Workshop book.
  • Find a local nonprofit and offer to design for free.

Resist the temptation to include everything you’ve ever designed in your portfolio. This is a place for your strongest work only.

Steal, steal, steal at first. Don’t worry about being original — that will come later, once you are more comfortable with your craft. When you learn a musical instrument, you learn how to play other people’s songs before composing your own. Same goes for design. Steal like an artist.

Go to Dribbble for inspiration on some of the best designers. Check out pttrnsfor iOS inspiration, and patterntap for website inspiration.

9. Get your first design job

Once you have a solid portfolio you can start looking for jobs or you can let jobs look for you by building a social media presence or portfolio sites like dribbble and behance and by sharing your works on social media.

The biggest factor to boost your employability is to be able to work with developers. Learn some interaction design. Learn some basic HTML and CSS. Designers in the tech industry (interaction designers, web designers, app designers) are in extremely high demand and are paid well. That’s where the jobs are right now.

I personally have started my journey learning how to design with code.(take it from me it’s not as hard as you expect)

I started it out of frustration but since starting i’ve gain a lot more insight as too what is possible with code and now I’m pushing to become a full stack developer and a human-centered designer. This isn’t for everyone but if you like to write code and also want to be a designer you can be both, this would make getting jobs easier for you most of the times.

SOURCE – UX Planet

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How To Use Underlined Text To Improve User Experience

(This article is supported by Adobe.) An underline is a horizontal line immediately below a portion of text. In our everyday experience, we underline to emphasize key sections of text, sometimes drawing an underline by hand below printed text. But underlines have their own place in the world of digital design. In fact, underlined text has become one of the most common, most recognizable features of our online experience. When we see an underlined word or sentence on a web page, we immediately assume it’s a link.

In this article, I’ll explain the concept of underlining and provide a few tips on how to use it to improve the web experience.

Historical ContextLink

Text has been underlined way before the web was invented. It was used by print designers to emphasize important parts of a text:

Underlinig was the only realistic method of highlighting
(Large preview) (Image credit: Marcin Wichary)

It has been used in advertising:

Wrigley's Spearmint Ad
Wrigley’s Spearmint ad (1915)

We even find it in our immediate environment:

underlined text in environment
Some road signs with important information contain underlined text. (Large preview) (Image credit: Tyler B)

Today, designers usually don’t underline text for emphasis because such styling is considered distracting.

When Tim Berners-Lee initially presented the concept of the World Wide Web in 1991, he stated: “The [World Wide Web] consists of documents, and links.” Since then, links have become a fundamental element of the online experience, the glue that holds the web together.

The toolbox of the earliest web designers was way too limited — only simple typefaces and a limited number of colors (colored monitors displayed only 16 colors, and many were just black and white). But emphasizing links with a different style was essential, so that early adopters could figure out which elements on the page were important. The simplest solution was to underline. Since then, underlining text has become the standard decoration of HTML hyperlinks. And while designers have tried different styles for links for the last 30 years, underlining remains favored by many web designers.

blue underlined hyperlink
The blue underlined hyperlink is one of the most widely understood conventions of the web. (Large preview) (Image credit: Cern)

Underlined links have a few major benefits:

  • Familiarity
    The underline is one of the most widely understood conventions on the web. Underlines provide a strongly perceived affordance of clickability — the vast majority of users understand that underlined text is a link.
  • Scannabilty
    Underlined text is a great visual cue that guarantees link visibility when scanning text. As we scan pages vertically, any horizontal line will cut right through our line of sight. Underlining guides users to important information as they skim.
  • Accessibility
    When color alone is used to differentiate clickable elements, some groups of users (such as color-blind people) might have problems identifying links. According to the WCAG 2.0, color shouldn’t be the only visual indicator of a potential action. If you want your website to be accessible, you’ll have to add another visual cue to links, and underlining is a logical choice.

Despite all of its advantages, underlining can hinder the user experience in some ways:

  • Readability
    The interruptive nature of an underline is excellent for skimming, but it can affect readability. A study by the University of Hamburg shows that underlining has a detrimental impact on text readability. Based on the study, avoid underlines when the main goal of the content is comprehension.
  • Aesthetics
    Underlines add visual noise to text and the overall design. A lot of underlining spread throughout a block of text can make for a busy look.

Designing The Perfect UnderlineLink

Before we dive into the details of how to design the perfect underline, it’s worth defining our goal. We want to create a visible yet unobtrusive underline. Users should be able to understand that the element is interactive — when they see it, they should immediately know that it’s a link — but it shouldn’t draw too much attention to itself or stand apart.


Don’t underline any text that’s not a link (even if your links aren’t underlined). Underlines provide a strongly perceived affordance of clickability, and users will be confused and frustrated if underlined text doesn’t match their expectations. If you need to emphasize certain words or sentences, using italics or bold is much safer.


Try to keep linked phrases short, three to five words. Anything more will clutter the text.


Anchor text is the clickable text in a link. It should be descriptive — users should be able to predict what they’ll get when they click a link. For this reason, avoid anchor text like “click here” because that says almost nothing about the content behind the link and forces users to hunt for more information on what exactly they will be clicking on. “Click here” links also make a website less accessible for people who use screen readers. Most screen readers say “link” before each link. For example, a “cars” link would be read as “link cars” by JAWS. Thus, you can expect that JAWS would read a “click here” link as “link click here,” which is utterly uninformative.

According to Google’s “Search Engine Starter Guide,” putting words that anticipate the target page at the start of the link text is critical.

click here example
By itself, “click here” is completely meaningless. The second link sets an expectation of what the user will get when they click the link. (Large preview)


Consistency is the key to teaching users what links look like on your website. There shouldn’t be a situation in which some of the links on your website are underlined and some aren’t. Different visual signifiers being used on different pages can easily confuse visitors. Pick a link design and stick to it.

Design consistency is important not only for small websites. For example, different sections of CNN’s website have different styles for links. CNN Style uses underlined text:

David de Rueda
All links in the article are underlined (see “David de Rueda” as an example) (Large preview)

CNN Sport, meanwhile, uses color to visually distinguish links:

CNN example
All links in the article are visually separated with a different color (see “READ: Inside the Kodokan — judo’s spiritual home”). (Large preview)


Descender crashing is perhaps the second most significant issue caused by underlines (after clutter). This happens when characters containing descenders (such as lowercase p, g, j, y and q) aren’t taken into account and the underline touches the letterforms. This can cause a cluttered, ugly look and make the text less legible.

example of underlined text link
Descenders y, g and p crash into an underline, reducing legibility.

A good underline is positioned below the baseline and skips descenders. Hiding the underline below certain characters not only will improve legibility but also will look more refined:

underlined text in Adobe XD
Here’s an example of underlined text in Adobe XD. Underlining is used only where it does not touch or closely approach a glyph. (Large preview)

How do you prevent the descender crash issue. Links on the web are styled with the text-decoration: underline CSS property by default. Unfortunately, this property doesn’t take descenders into account.

Among the solutions that address this problem, the simplest is the text-decoration-skip CSS property. It specifies which parts of an element’s content should be skipped over by text decoration. It controls all text decoration lines drawn by an element and also any text decoration lines drawn by its ancestors.

The text-decoration-skip property isn’t supported in all browsers yet. Alternatives (such as box-shadow) would be worth exploring if your text is hard to read without it.

Update: On Nov. 8, 2017, the property has been renamed to/superseded by text-decoration-skip-ink:, with auto as an initial value in Chrome 64.

white space around underlined text
If your browser supports the text-decoration-skip property, you’ll notice that the descenders here (like y and p) have a little white space around them.


Color is a powerful tool in the designer’s toolkit. It can be used to distinguish links from other text.


Avoid coloring text unless it’s a link because visitors can easily confuse colored text as being a link.


Not necessarily. According to Jakob Nielsen, “Shades of blue provide the strongest signal for links, but other colours work almost as well.” However, if you are free to select a color for links, blue is always best. It is still the color with the strongest perceived affordance of clickability — an experienced web user associates “blue and underlined” with links. And the color has one significant advantage over others: It’s the most accessible for people with color deficiencies (people who suffer from protanopia and deuteranopia can see it).

Tip: Because blue is strongly associated with clickability, avoid it for non-link text, even if blue is not your chosen link color. Blue text that is not clickable leads to frustration.


Visually differentiating visited and unvisited links will make the user’s journey easier because users will be able to keep track of what they’ve seen. The two colors should be variants or shades of the same color, so that they’re clearly related. The color for unvisited links should be more saturated, and the color for visited links a bit duller.

two examples of underlined text links


For lists in which every item is a link, not underlining is OK. In this case, the layout clearly indicates the area’s function.

There’s no need to add underline for each element on this list. (Image credit: wiseGEEK) (Large preview)

Mobile ConsiderationsLink

Today, almost 50% of users access the web from a mobile device. Optimizing the web experience for mobile users is a top priority for web designers.


Do not use underlined links in mobile apps. Underlined links are a part of the website model, not a part of the app model. Apps should have buttons, not links.

TD Bank app for iOS
TD Bank app for iOS


Using a thumb to tap links can be painful, especially when you have trouble spotting a link and then have to zoom in to tap it. On a touchscreen, the sizes of objects are critical. Make interactive elements big enough to be both easy to see and easy to interact with.


Links make the Internet what it is. In his classic book on usability, Don’t Make Me Think, Steve Krug writes, “Since a large part of what people are doing on the web is looking for the next thing to click, it’s important to make it obvious what’s clickable and what’s not.” A robust visual design is essential to making the user journey joyful. While underlining has its downsides, it remains one of the most explicit ways to indicate the presence of a link. Underlining text makes links both easy to find and easy to understand for visitors.

AUTHOR : Nick Babich

SOURCE : SmashingMagazine

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